It also showed that more men were in severe group (60

It also showed that more men were in severe group (60.8%, 95% Cl = 57.2C64.2) compared to the non-severe group (47.6, 95% Cl = 44.9C50.4%), < 0.0001 (147). Diagnosis Laboratory Diagnosis Table 4 outlines the case definitions used by Who also for surveillance. (RT-PCR) is usually a diagnostic test of choice for SARS CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS CoV-2 infections. This review aims to discuss epidemiological, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of human coronaviruses with a focus on SARS CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS CoV-2. studies in mice and also neuroinvasive features clinically. It also peaks during the winter season in tepid climates (7, 22). HCoV-NL63 The first case of HCoV-NL63 was reported from a 7 months-old lady in the Netherlands in 2004. Children under the age of 5 years are most commonly infected, but it can infect all Sulfacarbamide age groups. The patient infected with HCoV-NL63 typically presents with coryza, fever, bronchiolitis, fever, and may even present with croup in some rare cases. The incubation period is typically 2C4 days. Patients with HCoV-NL63 have co-infection with other respiratory viruses in about 71% cases. It is globally common and peaks during early summer time, spring, and winter seasons (7, 22). HCoV-HKU1 HCoV-HKU1 was first discovered in 2004. HCoV-HKU1 presents as moderate respiratory symptoms. It also peaks in the winter season, and the incubation period is usually 2C3 days (7). HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 are all transmitted by respiratory droplets and fomites. It accounts for up to 15C30% of respiratory infections in a 12 months and causes more severe disease in the elderly, immunocompromised individuals (such as those with underlying co-morbidities and neonates) (17). SARS-CoV SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1 is the first coronavirus known to cause severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After the discovery of the SARS-CoV-2 computer virus in 2019, SARS-CoV is also referred to as SARS-CoV-1. SARS was first reported in 2002 and then spread globally with the last reported case in 2004. Infected patients presented with myalgias, malaise, fever, chills, cough, dyspnea, and respiratory distress as a late symptom. In severe cases, multi-organ involvement was reported (GI, liver, and kidney) (7). Diarrhea was reported in 40 to 70% of SARS-CoV-1 cases (9, 11, 23). Abnormal liver chemistries, elevated creatinine kinase, and lymphopenia were common laboratory findings. The route of transmission included respiratory droplets, fomites, and fecal-oral BTF2 routes. The Chinese horseshoe bat was found to be a natural host of SARS-CoV-1 with the civet as an intermediate host. SARS-CoV-1 utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, which are Sulfacarbamide almost omnipresent in the body (7, 17, 24). MERS-CoV MERS-CoV was first reported from Saudi Arabia in 2012. Patients present with fever, cough, chills, sore throat, myalgias, arthralgias, dyspnea, pneumonia, and acute renal failure. In up to 30% of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea can be seen. Sulfacarbamide The route of transmission is usually by respiratory droplets and fomites. Bats are likely the animal reservoir host, and dromedary camels are likely the intermediate host for human transmission. MERS-CoV utilizes Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as its receptor (7, 17, 24). SARS-CoV-2 Patients primarily present with fever, cough, and dyspnea. A systematic review and pooled analysis of 45 studies showed that fever (81.2%), cough (62.9%), loss of appetite (33.7%), shortness of breath (26.9%), loss of taste (25.4%), and sputum production (24.2%) were common symptoms reported by patients (25). Another systematic review and meta-analysis showed that fever (76.70%), cough (67.76%), olfactory (44.40%), gustatory (38.16%), dyspnea (37.49%), fatigue (29.93%), sputum production (17.85%), sore throat (16.7%), and headache (15.49%) were common symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients (26). The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea (9.1%), nausea/vomiting (5.2%), and abdominal pain (3.5%) were reported in COVID-19 positive patients (27). ARDS, acute respiratory failure, arrhythmias, septic shock, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy, acute renal failure are common complications observed in these patients (25,.