Results do not support an association of exposure with the occupation of gardener

Results do not support an association of exposure with the occupation of gardener. P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role Rabbit Polyclonal to CEP70 of consumption of boar meat in infection deserves further investigation. cause morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. Leptospirosis, the disease caused by by contact with infection in virtually all mammalian species examined has been found [2]. Infection can also be acquired from the environment contaminated with occurs through skin abrasions [8]. The clinical spectrum of infection varies from subclinical to life-threatening disease [9]. Clinical presentation of leptospirosis includes fever, flu-like symptoms, headache, intense myalgia, and liver involvement with jaundice and kidney involvement [8, 9]. shed in the urine of infected animals may contaminate soil of gardens. These places are often visited by domestic and wild animals Doxazosin that may be infected with infection. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of exposure with Doxazosin gardener occupation has not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association of IgG seropositivity and gardener occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the gardeners exposed to were also investigated. Materials and Methods Study design and study populations This serosurvey has an age- and gender-matched case-control study design. We used residual serum samples from serosurveys in gardeners [15] and general population [16] in Durango City, Mexico. The proportion of cases and controls was 1:1. Thus, cases included 168 gardeners, and controls included 168 subjects of the general population without gardener occupation. Doxazosin Participants were studied for the presence of anti-IgG antibodies. Inclusion criteria for gardeners were: 1) subjects who have been working as gardeners for at least 6 months in Durango City, Mexico; 2) aged 16 years and older; 3) any gender; and 4) who accepted to participate in the study. Socioeconomic status, or work place (private or government) were not restrictive criteria for enrollment. As a strategy to enroll gardeners, they were visited at their work places in streets, boulevards, parks and work offices. Gardeners were 16- 73 (mean: 38.15 13.91) years old, 15 were females and 153 were males. The control group included 168 subjects randomly selected from the general population of Durango City matched with cases by age and gender. Thus, the control group included 15 females and 153 males aged 38.10 14.00 (range: 16 – 73) years old. No difference in age among cases and controls was found (P = 0.97). General characteristics of gardeners Socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of gardeners were obtained from archival questionnaires [15]. Socioeconomic data included age, gender, birthplace, and educational level. In addition, the type of flooring at home was obtained. Work data included duration (years) in the activity, frequency of contact with water, sewage and soil, history of splashes at face with water, eating while working, washing hands before eating, history of injuries with sharp material at work, and use of safety practices (hand gloves, face masks and glasses). Clinical data included health status, history of blood transfusion or transplant history, and impairments in memory, reflexes, hearing and vision. Behavioral data included animal contacts, consumption of meat and type of meat consumed, degree of meat cooking, consumption of untreated water, unpasteurized milk or unwashed vegetables and fruits, eating away from home (in restaurants or fast food outlets), and traveling. Detection of antibodies in serum Serum samples of gardeners and controls were analyzed for detection of anti-IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, IgG ELISA test (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA). According to the kits insert, this assay has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. An absorbance reading of 0.5 optical density (OD) units was used as a cut-off for positivity of anti-IgG antibodies. High levels of anti-IgG antibodies in sera were considered when absorbance readings 1.0 OD units were obtained. All tests were performed according to the instructions of the manufacturer, and positive and.